Law Academy Course 106

Electric Technology for Attorneys - Coming Soon!

Course 106

The overall goal of Course 106 is to provide attorneys new to the oil and refined products pipeline industry a foundational understanding of the industry and how it is organized and regulated, so they are better equipped to assist clients in this industry.

Energy Law Academy Certificate of Achievement: Three Electives from Course 106, 107, 108, 109, or 110 are a requirement to obtain the Energy Law Academy Certificate of Achievement.


I. Introductory Concepts: In this segment of the Primer, participants will learn the basic terminology and concepts for understanding the technology behind the electric grid, such as the basic tools for measuring electricity, the difference between capacity and energy, the difference between real and reactive power, and the difference between direct and alternating current. Students will gain an understanding of how today’s electrical grid is configured – and why.

  • Watts, Volts, Amps, Hz
  • kW, kWh, MW, MWh
  • DC, AC
  • Reactive Power
  • Diagram of the Electric Grid

II. Distribution:  This segment of the program will focus on the equipment that is used in the delivery of electricity to retail consumers. Students will gain an understanding of the difference between network and radial systems, where and why electric meters are located, operational issues faced by utility operators, how key distribution equipment such as protection systems and transformers work, and what happens in a control room – the place where operation of the electric grid all comes together.

  • Definition
  • Network, Radial
  • Meters
  • Operational Issues
  • Safety- Short-circuit current
  • Reliability
  • Power quality- Voltage control (e.g., capacitors)
  • Protection Systems
  • Transformers
  • Down-line Automation
  • Distribution SCADA (Supervisory  Control and Data Acquisition), Control Room Operations
  • Bi-directional Distribution Systems

III. Transmission:  This part of the program will focus on the equipment that is used to deliver electricity from generators to distribution systems and between distribution systems. Students will gain an understanding of the key components of the transmission system such as towers, insulators and conductors, how transmission systems are designed (including concepts such as stability and thermal limits), and operational issues confronted by transmission operators (including loop flows and vegetation management).

IV. Generation:  This segment of the program will address the basic technological concepts underlying electric generation, followed by an in-depth review of the various types of generating technologies. Students will gain an understanding the basics of generation, including the difference between baseload, intermediate, peak and intermittent generation; heat rate; blackstart generators; and station power. Our instructors will then discuss different types of generation – coal, natural gas, and nuclear – and the environmental controls that are used in power plants using those fuels. The session will wrap up with a discussion of renewable generation (hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass).

  • General
    1. Baseload, intermediate, peaking, intermittent
    2. Heat rate
    3. Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
    4. Reactive controls
    5. Inertia
    6. Blackstart
    7. Station power
  • Coal
    1. Different boiler designs and efficiency options up to ultra-    supercritical
    2. Differences in coal
    3. Coal gasification
    4. Cycling issues


  • Gas
    1. Reciprocating internal combustion engine (RICE), aeroderivative turbines
    2. Simple, combined cycle
  • Nuclear
    1. Basic designs
    2. Fuel supply
    3. Spent fuel storage
    4. Containment technology
  • Environmental Controls
    1. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction (NSCR)
    2. Bag house
    3. Mercury controls
    4. Solid waste management
    5. Liquid waste management
    6. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
  • Renewables
    1. Hydro
      • Licensed, federal
      • Impoundments, run-of-river, pumped storage
    2. Wind
    3. Solar (photovoltaic, concentrated)
    4. Biomass
      • Landfill gas
      • Municipal waste
      • Wood waste
      • Dedicated fuel (e.g., switchgrass)
      • Animal digesters
      • Poultry waste

V. Distributed Energy Resources (DER): This segment of the seminar will address new technologies that perform a power supply function. The session will cover the basics of distributed generation (DG) technologies, including combined heat and power and small renewable generators and how they are integrated with the electric grid. The session will also address energy storage, energy efficiency, and demand response, including how they are dispatched by grid operators. Our instructors also will cover emerging issues such as the impact of the Internet of Things and electric vehicles.

  • Distributed Generation (DG) Technologies
    1. RICE units
    2. Combined heat and power (CHP) (a/k/a cogeneration)
    3. Solar, distributed wind, small hydro
  • Storage
    1. Thermal, mechanical, battery (different chemistries)
  • Energy Efficiency (EE)
  • Demand Response (DR) (devices and control systems)
  • Internet of Things (IOT)
  • Electric Vehicles (EVs)
  • Integration Issues
    1. Standards
    2. Inverter technology
    3. Potential impact on distribution grid
    4. Potential impact on transmission
  • Dispatch of DER
    1. Generally
    2. DER and natural / man-made disasters